Python is a great programming language for automating system administration tasks on Linux systems. With its wide selection of different libraries, many of them can be used to improve the efficiency of various tasks. Using the examples below, you can easily run Linux system commands, work with files and directories, perform networking tasks and automate authentication processes in just a few seconds.
What Is Python?
Python can be best described as a general-purpose programming language. It was developed by a Dutch computer scientist named Guido van Rossum in the late 1980s and early 1990s to be a dynamically-typed programming language and successor to the “ABC” programming language.
Today it is widely considered to be one of the most popular programming languages in the world, with use-cases ranging from anything in web development to complex mathematics and scientific calculations. It is also appreciated for its elegant syntax and being relatively easy to learn.
Installing Python on Linux
Many Linux distributions already have Python installed by default. To check whether or not your system has Python 3 installed, you can run the
python3 command with the
If Python is installed, the command will display the version of your Python configuration.
To install Python on Ubuntu and Debian systems:
Alternatively, Python can also be downloaded as a “.tgz” or “.xz” file.
Using the “os” Module
One of the best Python libraries for Linux system administrators is the “os” module. You can use it for the automation of many different kinds of tasks, such as handling directories and files. It can also run system commands.
As an example, you can utilize the module to create a new directory:
You can also delete a directory using the module:
You can rename files and directories:
Files are easily removable using the module:
The current working directory is easily printable:
The contents of a directory, like files and subdirectories, can be checked easily:
Use the module to print out the current user:
Also run Linux shell commands using the module:
Performing Networking Tasks Using the “socket” Module
Python has a module that is built to perform different networking tasks and create complex networking-related utilities, like port scanners and video game servers. It is no surprise that the “socket” module can also be used to perform common and basic networking tasks on your system.
You can, for example, check your system’s IP address and hostname:
You can also use the module to check the IP address of a website:
Using Paramiko for Logging in to an SSH Server and Running Commands
If you want to automate the process of logging in to an SSH server setup and running commands there, a “Paramiko” Python library will be extremely useful.
First download the library using Python’s
pip3 package manager:
Use the module to log in to an SSH server and run commands:
Frequently Asked Questions
1. Do I need Python 3 to use these modules and libraries?
While most of these libraries and modules do work with Python 2, there is a difference in syntax, and these code snippets won’t run. With some changes, you can adapt them to run in Python 2. However, Python 2 is outdated, so you should be using Python 3.
2. Do I need to install the “os” and “socket” modules?
Generally, no. Most installations of Python come with these modules straight out of the box.
3. Can I use Paramiko to log in to non-Unix systems?
According to the developer of Paramiko, at this time the library can’t be used to log in to non-Unix systems with SSH.
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