Streaming vs. Downloading: Which One Should You Use

When you see a movie or an audio file online, you can either stream it live or download it locally and watch/listen to it from there. If you are on an unmetered broadband plan, you hardly care about bandwidth, but if you pay per use, or if you are the owner of a website with lots of videos/audios, then you are probably wondering if streaming an online video/audio consumes more data than downloading the file outright.

First, let’s make sure we have the same idea about what streaming and downloading are.

When you download a file, you copy it from the Internet onto your local device. You physically have the file, the whole of it, at your disposal. You can play it as many times you like.

When you stream a file, you don’t physically have it on your computer. The file is somewhere on a server, and you are receiving portions (i.e. streams of data) of it at a time. Streaming is very similar to listening to the radio or watching TV – you don’t have to do anything special (e.g. download the file) to see it/listen to it but after the song/movie is over, you don’t physically have it.

You can’t say streaming is better than downloading or vice versa. As you see from their explanations, they have different pros and cons. This means it depends on your particular circumstances – in one case streaming is the wiser choice, while in other cases it isn’t.

Basically, if you will be playing the file multiple times, it’s better to download it. You download it once and can watch it as many times you want. And you don’t need an Internet connection to play it – this makes a huge difference if you are on a plane or somewhere else where you either have no Internet at all or it’s not fast.

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With streaming you have to transfer the data (almost) every time you play it. I say almost because if you stream a file and it gets into your browser’s cache, AND you don’t close the browser between the replays, AND it doesn’t get overwritten from the cache, you might be able to play it without downloading it again.

However, technically in this case you are not streaming directly – you are replaying a download. It makes no difference that this isn’t a file you explicitly downloaded – it’s still a download because it resides locally on your hard drive. (Your browser’s cache IS on your hard drive and not on some server, right?)

Also, if a file is a really precious one, you’d better download it and keep it safe. In this case you can’t rely on streaming – the file might be gone at any time.

If the file you plan to watch/listen to isn’t a very important one, and it makes no sense to download it locally and keep it, streaming is the better choice. What is more, if it turns out you don’t like what’s in the file, you can stop it any time. In this case you don’t have to download the whole file just to see it’s not what you like, and you play only the first seconds or minutes of it and move on. This is a huge bandwidth saver – you don’t download stuff you don’t need.

Another advantage of streaming in terms of bandwidth consumption comes from compression and/or lower resolutions. Most sites stream low-res versions of their stuff but don’t offer the same for downloads. Sure, the quality of a low-res version is lower, but if data usage is your top concern, and you are fine with smaller/blurrier videos, streaming is your better choice.

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Compression, such as H.264, also helps to reduce file size, not necessarily at the expense of quality. Compression removes redundant data which leads to a significant decrease of the file size. Well, sometimes the codec removes useful data it wrongfully classifies as redundant, but as I already mentioned, if bandwidth is more important to you than quality, this won’t bother you much.

Streaming might consume less bandwidth, but it requires a fast connection. If it isn’t fast enough, get prepared for chopped video/audio with huge interruptions between the scenes.

So, after all, does streaming use more data than downloading? The short answer is that with comparable quality of the file and without compression, they use more or less the same amount of data. For one-time viewing of a compressed file, or if you are fine with low-res, use streaming to save bandwidth (and time). The same applies to audio, but since audio files are usually smaller than video files, with them data usage is less of an issue.

3 comments

  1. Too bad you didn’t mention the HUGE differences in terms of Freedom between Streaming and Downloading, it’s the same difference between being a Slave and a Free Person.

    With Streaming:
    – You depend completely on the good will of the streamer and the internet chain of intermediaries EVERY TIME you want to access the content.
    – You must accept any adware, malware and frustrationware you may have to install or view in order to enjoy that low quality image in a crippled down, buggy viewer that gives you no viewing choice whatsoever.
    – You depend on an internet connection and on a mobile device, it’s outlandishly expensive.
    – Once the video has been viewed, it’s gone forever, but the junk that was downloaded with it stays in your cache and the software and plugins you constantly need to update keep corrupting your hardware every time a little bit more.
    – You cannot opt out of the web browser, webpage and software to view the content. If it crashes your machine, you eventually get told you need to update your computer even though the contentbitself can most of the time be easily be played on machines 15 years old and older, and of any type.
    – Streaming is designed to suck as much out of users as possible, be it in terms of money, personal information, and other computer parasites.
    – Streaming was designed to remove freedom of choice and maximize revenue for the streamer and turn viewers into passive consumers.

    Downloading:
    – Gets you the actual content as a file, often in the native format it was uploaded into, without any of the extra garbage streaming tacks on to it.
    – Can be played on powerful, standalone, small-footprint applications that don’t crash or stutter, allows many tweaks such as boost sound, brightness, color, sharpness, zoom in and out, etc. It also allows instant rewind and forward to any place in the video without requiring redownloading again.
    – Can be saved forever where you wish and as many copies as you need for backup purposes. You know what it is and know where it is. The file can then be retrieved at some further date and reprocessed as needed such as trimming, reducing its resolution and size for a small screen, etc, etc, etc.
    – Once saved as a file, it’s a simple matter of transferring a copy to whatever device you want to watch it on, without incurring data charges and without having to pay royalties yet again. Imagine if every time you opened a book, you had to send money to a publisher. Yet this is commonly done with digital content.
    – Censorship can never ‘take it down’ like it does with online videos and you’re one step ahead to prevent ‘remote deletion’ of the kind that happened to Kindle owners a few years ago.
    – If the content was downloaded locally with a proprietary system such as iTunes, you can find ways to liberate the data you paid for out of its prison and get to see it wherever you wish, on any devioce and with any player you see fit to use.
    – You liberate yourself from the tyranny of mandatory updates and the whims of the software providers.

    No one who values their freedom would consider streaming is a positive thing, unless they don’t value what they are viewing. Without a way to keep a copy locally, streaming is a huge step backwards in terms of enlightenment and is a net loss for Society. The reasons it’s pushed so much by giant corporations under the disguise of convenience is that it really benefits those who profit from the ignorance and submission of content consumers, Oligarchs and Tyrants.

  2. Thanks, Chris, great input from you! I totally agree with your points about freedom. I wrote the article with the idea to focus on the differences between streaming and downloading mainly in terms of data use, not as a whole because this is a huge topic and it won’t fit in a small article and this is why I didn’t cover much else.

    I am also a fan of downloading because of the control it gives but for unimportant files streaming does have its advantages. Ironically, some files I’ve downloaded in the past and moved onto a DVD or any other external storage, take longer to find than to stream it online or even redownload it. This happens when you download way too much more than you can organize. :)

  3. What if I don’t play the full video, only first few minutes I play. Will data equivalent to the entire size be cut?

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