Raspberry Pi 4 as Desktop Computer: Is It Really Viable?

Raspberry Pi 4 Desktop Cover

There’s little doubt that the Raspberry Pi 4 is significantly more powerful than its predecessors. Its based on the faster ARM Cortex-A72 microarchitecture and has four cores pegged at marginally-higher clock speeds. The graphics subsystem is significantly beefed up as well, running at twice the maximum stock clocks as the outgoing model. Everything about it makes it a viable desktop replacement. But is it really good enough to replace your trusty old desktop? I spent three weeks with the 8GB version of the Pi 4 to answer that million-dollar question.

Setting It Up for Desktop Use

To use it as a Desktop, you will need external peripherals like the monitor, keyboard, mouse, etc. There is an official desktop kit that you can get, but avoid it at all costs. The sizeable premium it commands doesn’t justify the unergonomic keyboard and lacklustre mouse bundled with the kit. With the exception of the 15.3-watt official power supply, none of the included accessories are any good.

Ditch the Official Case and microSD Storage

The official Pi 4 case has near zero ventilation and causes the SoC to thermal throttle under moderate desktop usage. We have an excellent guide showing how to modify it to prevent just that, but you’re better off purchasing this actively cooled aluminium case Instead. It fared the best from the half a dozen different cases I tested in this period. The thermal graph below shows how well this particular case cools a Pi 4 8GBm overclocked to 2.0 GHz, even when it is running at full tilt.

Raspberry Pi 4 Desktop Overclocking 05

The Pi 4’s fast USB 3.0 interface allows you to ditch the slower microSD storage for a significantly faster SSD (through a USB 3.0 enclosure) or USB 3.0 flash drive.

Faster storage not only improves boot-up and application load times, but it also makes the entire desktop experience relatively snappier and more responsive. The only issue is finding an UASP (USB Attached SCSI Protocol) capable SSD enclosure compatible with the Raspberry Pi 4, because some enclosures have trouble booting the OS. Read our handy guide to know more about USAP enclosures and how to boot the Pi 4 off a USB drive.

Just be sure to buy a powered USB hub if you plan on connecting any additional USB peripherals. The powered bit becomes important because the Raspberry Pi 4 spec only allows the totality of USB ports to draw a maximum of 600mA of current.

Raspberry Pi 4 Desktop Ssd 04

Hardware Optimized for Multitasking

The two micro HDMI outputs allow you to run a dual display configuration, which is a godsend for productivity. The upgraded GPU can handle a 4K display, but I would not recommend two of them. The limited display bandwidth forces both monitors to run at 30Hz. That can be quite disorienting. I tried two 1080p monitors as well as a 1080p and 768p monitors successfully at 60Hz. There were no issues whatsoever. The built-in dual-display management utility does a good job of letting you set up and configure the displays and desktop options with a great degree of granularity.

It goes without saying that you’re better off opting for at least a 4GB version of the Pi 4 for this exercise. The additional RAM goes a long way toward allowing you to run multiple applications and browser tabs concurrently – something that is bound to happen in a typical work setup.

I had absolutely no trouble playing back a YouTube video while running an instance of terminal monitoring system vitals and productivity applications such as word processor (Google Docs), spreadsheet (LibreOffice), and image-editing software (GIMP).

The latest stable version of the Raspberry Pi OS is still 32-bit, and that limits each system process to a maximum of 3GB of RAM. In theory, a single application cannot use all 4GB or 8GB memory of the higher end variants but has no practical consequences for the typical use case. Furthermore, each Chromium browser tab is treated as a separate process, so the 3GB limit doesn’t have any real-world impact on performance or system memory access.

Raspberry Pi 4 Desktop Case 03

Don’t Expect It to Replace Your Desktop

Now that we have figured out the optimal way of using the Raspberry Pi 4 as a desktop, it’s time to delve into how it fares in this role after it has been equipped to give its best shot. That completely depends on where you’re coming from and what you expect from this tiny single board computer.

If you have abruptly moved from using a powerful gaming PC, like I have, you’re going to feel the general sluggishness associated with a relatively weak mobile SoC, such as this one. While launching applications and switching between browser pages is faster on an SSD, it cannot compensate for the Pi 4’s weaker mobile processing hardware. The couple of seconds spent waiting between the aforementioned tasks quickly add up and are quite annoying for someone coming off a decent laptop or a desktop PC.

YouTube videos, for that matter, are acceptable enough only up to 1080p resolution. Acceptable because the video playback still noticeably drops frames and reveals occasional screen tearing. The lack of proper OpenGL video hardware acceleration implementation in the OS is partly to blame. However, this is more a deficiency of the software engineering department of the Raspberry Pi Foundation, so things may improve in the future after the OS has matured. Just don’t hold your breath.

Linux + ARM = Compatibility Woes

The Raspberry Pi 4 does most things a regular desktop can. Even seemingly resource-hungry tasks such as video editing can be done in a pinch with free applications such as Kdenlive. Although it’s relatively easy to find a Linux version of popular software, you’re bound to run into something that is available on Linux but isn’t quite compatible with the ARM version that the Raspberry Pi OS needs. That means you’ll have a hard time trying to install Dropbox or a Twitter client and must learn to make peace with the browser versions instead.

Raspberry Pi 4 Desktop 01

Things, however, get a lot worse when you begin running into hardware issues. The video feed of my old Logitech webcam worked perfectly out of the box, but Zoom absolutely couldn’t use the audio feed. I had to give up on conducting a Zoom video call.

While most common hardware is compatible, you are likely to hit a brick wall when something isn’t. And then you’d wish you had a PC or Mac to get the job done.

Raspberry Pi 4 Desktop Overclocking Stress Test 07

Temper Your Expectations

The Raspberry Pi 4 can perform basic computing tasks with reasonable competence, but you honestly can’t expect the snappiness and speed associated with a proper desktop or laptop computer. The Raspberry Pi 4 still has some ways to go until it can match those devices in terms of third-party software support. This SBC is nevertheless a viable low-cost, low-power computing alternative for those who don’t mind restricting themselves to basic web browsing and productivity tasks. That holds true just as long as you don’t mind putting in the effort to find (or even compile) ARM Linux alternatives for your favorite applications.

I won’t recommend getting rid of your primary desktop/laptop in favor of a Raspberry Pi 4 just yet. You can, however, use Raspberry Pi as a NAS, music server, or as a personal web server.

Nachiket Mhatre Nachiket Mhatre

Growing up, Nachiket had a penchant for disassembling household electronics and appliances; most of which couldn’t be reassembled successfully. His parents didn’t approve. These days, he leverages his lifelong pursuit of dissecting gadgets to write about technology. His parents still don’t approve.


    1. The same reason why incorrectly configured pull-down resistors on the USB subsystem made the initial batches of the Raspberry Pi 4 incompatible with most aftermarket USB cables. It’s a glaring design oversight.

  1. https://flirc.tv/more/raspberry-pi-4-case

    This is the first affordable Raspberry Pi case made out of aluminum. We wanted to ensure we didn’t sacrifice form over function, so we used the aluminum housing of the case to provide a built in heat sink.

    1. The FLIRC case is well regarded as a passive cooling option for the Raspberry Pi. I had bought one for testing, but it’s still stuck in the US due to the pandemic. I can’t recommend it because I didn’t have one to run the thermal benchmarks. The Pi community swears by it for applications where fan noise is an issue.

  2. I tend to significantly disagree with the conclusion of the article. I bought Raspberry Pi 4 very soon after it was publicly available and from that time I use it as the standard office computer.
    It means mailing, using Office 365, chats and conferencing theough MS Teams, using web tools etc.
    Till now, I didn’t recognise any significant problems.

  3. I think coming from a gaming PC, your expectations for desktop computers might be a little high. Other than that I love this article. Lots of options and lots of work. Great job. Thank you.

  4. I used to use a Pi3 as a basic desktop… worked just fine for Youtube, Bitchute, web browsing and email. Now I have a Pi4 which is significantly BETTER and works great at all those tasks, runs 2 screens and even edited and processed video’s made in Audacity and Openshot.
    Zoom is (BARELY!!) usable using Chromium and a modern webcam…
    To be honest its a better PC then I had 10 years ago. The ONLY issue I ever ran into was that I had to re-flash it when the display firmware borked on first boot (Maybe my fault for having a single monitor plugged into the wrong (2nd) port). It was an easy fix but I neeed to look up the issue.

  5. That’s a nice, well-written, and informative article. Kudos.

    My take on the worthiness of a Raspberry Pi 4 as a desktop computer is different than yours, and I think it’s basically an issue of perspective: As you wrote, you came from a serious gamer PC, with its unique hardware requirements; I, however, came from a 20 year-old, “evolving”, 32-bit P4-based computer, running a “barebones” installation of Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic).

    For you, the Raspberry Pi 4’s performance was more-or-less acceptable, but with some important caveats/deal-breakers. For me, it’s a “sea-change”: Fast! Double the RAM from my previous box. 64-bit software (I chose to install the 64-bit Raspberry Pi OS (beta, but without any “beta” issues). Chromium spins like a top; Thunderbird w/Lightning flies; GIMP and DigiKam are even more responsive. LibreOffice, Audacious, SMplayer… I could go on.

    Primary storage is a 500GB SSD (USB3), with a 512GB microSDXC card as backup (I use rpi-clone to keep them sync’d). I opted for a Pibow “Rainbow” case, along with an ICE Tower CPU cooler (works like a champ). I just bought a Raspberry Pi V2 camera module, and look forward to getting it up-and-running.

    Disclaimer: I’m a retired GNUnix sysadmin (25 years in academic and commercial settings), with 35 years overall Unix/Linux experience.

    1. Agreed. It is a matter of perspective, which is why I mentioned the fact that I moved from a modern gaming computer.

      The Raspberry Pi does its job well considering how it is aimed at everyone from enthusiasts messing with embedded systems and simple AI/ML implementations to those in developing countries using it as a low-cost primary computing solution.

      The Pi Foundation addressed some of my reservations by adding hardware video acceleration, but those privy with the development effort know how the foundation had been ignoring public demand for critical features such as 64-bit support. But like they say, better late than never.

      But this device is truly versatile. I use one of these to run the firmware for my 3D printer, and it is amazing how much of a difference it makes to the overall capability there.

  6. Just as a point of order, ARM does not imply mobile (it was invented for the desktop) and the Raspberry Pi 4’s SoC is an embedded system with low power consumption for use in always on appliances, such as set-top boxes.

    It is, basically, by design an HTPC.

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