Understanding Home Networking

These days, broadband internet is just about everywhere. Hospitals, restaurants, hotels, and of course homes are all connected with these nice, fast pipes. The problem is that your internet provider likely just gives you a single connection with a single address, no matter how many people or devices plan to use that internet connection. Here, we enter the world of home networking.

Often, just the words “computer network” are enough to draw up images of some complicated mess of cables and boxes with blinking lights. People see acronyms like LAN, WAN, TCP/IP and a host of others, and think this whole network thing must be the domain of pocket-protector wielding geeks. The truth is, once you get the basic idea of how it all fits together, you’ll find that it’s really not that complicated, and home networking can be done by just about anyone.

IP Addressing

Way back in the day, when I first switched from dialup to broadband, I was thrilled. Not only did everything go so much faster, but I had heard that my computer and my family’s computer could be online at the same time! Gasp! So naturally, on the day it was hooked up, I tried to get both computers online. To my surprise, it didn’t work. Each one could get online when they were the only computer connected, but as soon as I tried connecting both through a hub, it failed.

It was then that I began learning the world of IP addresses. Every device on the internet, from desktop computers to cell phones to smart toasters, has an IP address. Typically, this is a unique number assigned to each of those devices. IP addresses come in the form of “x.x.x.x”, each x being a number from 0 to 254. For example, the server that’s hosting Google.com has an IP address of 74.125.45.100. If you were to type that number into your web browser’s address bar, you’d get the Google homepage.

Places like Google, Yahoo, and of course MakeTechEasier.com keep the same IP address all the time. This is because they’re providing content to the world, and we want to make it as easy as possible for people and devices to find us.

Your home computer, on the other hand, is probably not serving web pages or providing some kind of content to the outside world. This means that your internet provider does not have to worry about giving you the same address every time you connect. Each time you connect to the internet, your computer asks your ISP for an address to use. Most of the time, it’s not the same one you had a few days, weeks, or months earlier. They see your computer’s request for an address, search in their system for an available one, and assign you the first unused address they have. For the sake of simplicity in this article, I’m going to use “9.9.9.1” to represent the IP address given to you by your ISP.

Back to my old internet sharing problem: what was going on was that my internet provider was only giving me ONE address. I could hook up 2, 10, or 700 computers but my ISP was still only giving me ONE address. Well how in the world was I to hook up all my computers when I only have 1 address to use? Network Address Translation.

Network Address Translation

It’s a fancy name for a pretty simple concept. NAT basically means converting that one, single, internet address (9.9.9.1 in our example) into seperate addresses for your home network. To make this easier to understand, I’m going to compare internet routing to the existing postal system here in the US.

postal

In the preceding example picture, we have College University as the destination for our letter. Even though the college is split into multiple buildings, it has a single street address. When the mail room gets a letter, it checks the letter to see which building it should go to, and which department in that building. Compare that to a similar example of an incoming internet data packet:

net

As you can see, it follows a very similar method to the postal example. The outside world sees every computer in your home only under your “main” IP address, in this case “9.9.9.1”. The router, which equates to the Mail Room in our example, checks all the incoming data to figure out which computer it should go to.

Note: I won’t be covering exactly how it figures that out, as that’s a bit beyond the scope of what I’m covering here, and the postal-to-internet analogy isn’t a perfect 1:1 comparison

You may be wondering about the IP addresses shown in the example. As I said earlier, every device on the internet has an IP address, but your ISP usually only gives you one at a time. Where did these other ones come from?

In short, IP addresses starting with “192.168.x.x” are private addresses. They only exist inside your home network. This is the key part of NAT. Even though you only have one “real” IP address of 9.9.9.1, your router basically “makes up” new ones for all your computers.

I know, I know, we’re getting into the complicated stuff and I said it wouldn’t be complicated. Essentially, what happens is that all the websites you visit or people you chat with on AIM/Yahoo/Skype/etc only see that your “street address”, your real IP of 9.9.9.1. When they send you a message, they send it to 9.9.9.1. It’s your router that knows, when it gets that message, which computer to send it to. The rest of the world doesn’t need to know anything but your main outside IP address. All the 192.168.x.x addresses are completely private and nothing but your router knows, or cares, that they exist.