Mac OS X Keyboard Shortcuts Cheatsheet

One of the best things about Mac OS is the number of keyboard shortcuts it supports. Keyboard shortcuts are great because you can perform a function right from the keyboard, which will save you a lot of mouse clicks. For example, why should you have to go to the File menu and then search for the option you’re looking for, when you can just use a quick keyboard shortcut that will do the same thing? Even though there are times when you can simply use your mouse, because the option is right there, in most cases a keyboard shortcut will save you time and is more convenient.

To help you boost your productivity when using your Mac, we’re providing you with a cheat sheet featuring all of the top and most important keyboard shortcuts for Mac OS:

Modifier Key Symbols

Many keyboard shortcuts include at least one modifier key. It's important to know what these symbols are because on application menus, which are great for finding out keyboard shortcuts on the fly, you'll only see symbols and letters listed next to the menu options.
⌘Œ˜Command - Located on both sides of the spacebar.
^Control - Located between the fn and option keys.
Option/Alt - Located next to the command keys (on both sides).
Shift - The first and last keys on the second row of keys from the bottom (above the row with spacebar, command, option, control, fn).
Cap Locks - Located above the shift key on the left side of the keyboard.
Delete - Located at the right end of the number keys row (last button).
fnFunction - The first key on the bottom row, next to the control/alt key.
Media Eject - Located at the top right corner of the keyboard.

Startup

Press and hold the key or key combination during the startup process, until the expected function occurs.
OptionDisplay all bootable volumes; if you're a Boot Camp user, you can also choose to boot in Windows from here (Startup Manager)
ShiftPerform a Safe Boot (start up in Safe Mode)
Left ShiftPrevent automatic login; if you have your Mac set to automatically login without prompting for a password, this will temporarily disable it.
CStart from bootable media (DVD, CD, USB thumb drive, etc)
TStart in FireWire target disk mode, which allows a Mac with a FireWire port to be used as an external hard disk connected to another computer.
NStart from NetBoot server; if your Mac is capable, you can boot from a network rather than a hard disk.
XForce Mac OS X startup (if non-Mac OS X startup volumes are present)
DUse Apple Hardware Test, a suite of diagnostics that will test your hardware for issues.
Command-RUse Recovery (OS X Lion or later) to repair your hard disk or reinstall OS X if needed, without the need for discs.
Command-VStart in Verbose Mode to see what is happening during system startup (command line will be displayed), which is great for troubleshooting.
Command-SStart in Single User Mode, which is much like Verbose Mode, but keeps the command line showing instead of moving into the graphical interface.
Command-Option-P-RReset NVRAM / parameter RAM, which can help if you're having issues with your volume, screen resolution, statup disk selection or kernel panic.
Hold down the Media Eject key or F12 keyEject removable discs from your DVD/CD ROM drive.

Sleep and Shut Down

Use these shortcuts to quickly shut down or put your Mac to sleep.
Power buttonTurn off your Mac or put it to sleep
Hold down the power buttonForce your Mac to shut down
Command-Control-power buttonForce your Mac to restart
Control-Media EjectShow the restart/sleep/shutdown dialog and you can choose the option that you'd like.
Command-Option-Media EjectPut the computer to sleep
Command-Control-Media EjectQuit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then restart the computer.
Command-Option-Control-Media EjectQuit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then shut down the computer.
Shift-Control-Media EjectPut all displays to sleep

Finder

The Finder is one of the most powerful and beneficial applications on the Mac; these shortcuts will help you to use it to its full potential
Command-ASelect all items in the front Finder window (or desktop if no window is open).
Command-Option-ADeselect all items
Command-Shift-AOpen the Applications folder
Command-CCopy selected item/text to the Clipboard.
Command-Shift-COpen the Computer window
Command-DCreate a duplicate of the selected item.
Command-Shift-DOpen desktop folder
Command-EEject
Command-FFind any matching Spotlight attribute.
Command-Shift-FFind Spotlight file name matches.
Command-Option-FNavigate to the search field in an already-open Spotlight window.
Command-Shift-GGo to Folder; you will be able to specify the folder you want to go to.
Command-Shift-HOpen the Home folder of the currently logged-in user account.
Command-IGet Info for a specific file or folder.
Command-Control-IGet Summary Info, which only displays the vital information for an item.
Command-JShow View Options so that you can clean up or tweak your window.
Command-KConnect to Servers; you can connect to both Mac and Windows servers for file sharing.
Command-Shift-KOpen Network window to connect to other computers on your local network.
Command-LMake an alias of the selected item to make it easier to access an application, document or folder.
Command-MMinimize window
Command-Option-MMinimize all windows
Command-NCreate a new Finder window.
Command-Shift-NCreate a new folder.
Command-Option-NCreate a new smart folder.
Command-OOpen selected item.
Command-Shift-QLog Out
Command-Shift-Option-QLog Out immediately
Command-RShow the original location (of an alias).
Command-TAdd the current item to the Finder sidebar.
Command-Shift-TAdd the current item to your Favorites.
Command-Option-THide Toolbar / Show Toolbar in Finder windows.
Command-Shift-UOpen the Utilities folder.
Command-VPaste
Command-WClose window
Command-Option-WClose all windows
Command-XCut
Command-Option-YCreate a Slideshow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later).
Command-ZUndo / Redo
Command-1View as Icon
Command-2View as List
Command-3View as Columns
Command-4View as Cover Flow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later).
Command-Comma (,)Open Finder preferences.
Command-Accent (`)Cycle through open Finder windows.
Command-Shift-Question Mark (?)Open Mac Help
Command-Left Bracket ([)Go to the previous folder.
Command-Right Bracket (])Go to the next folder.
Command-Up ArrowOpen the folder that contains the current folder.
Command-Control-Up ArrowOpen the folder that contains the current folder in a new window.
Command-Down ArrowOpen highlighted item.
Command-Shift-Up ArrowMake the desktop active.
Right Arrow (in List view)Open the selected folder.
Left Arrow (in List view)Close the selected folder.
Option-click the disclosure triangle (in List view)Open all folders within the selected folder.
Option–double-clickOpen a folder in a separate window, closing the current window.
Command–double-clickOpen a folder in a separate window.
Command-click the window titleSee the folders that contain the current window.
Command-TabSwitch application–cycle forward.
Command-Shift-TabSwitch application–cycle backward.
Command-DeleteMove to Trash
Command-Shift-DeleteEmpty Trash
Command-Shift-Option-DeleteEmpty Trash without confirmation dialog.
Space bar (or Command-Y)Quick Look (Mac OS X v10.5 or later) - lets you preview an item without opening it.
Command key while draggingMove dragged item to other volume/location (pointer icon changes while key is held).
Option key while draggingCopy dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held).
Command-Option key combination while draggingMake alias of dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held).

Application and OS X

Note: Some applications may not support all of these shorcuts, and may applications have their own set of shortcuts.
Command-Space barShow or hide the Spotlight search field.
Control-AMove to the beginning of a line/paragraph.
Control-BMove one character backward.
Control-DDelete the character in front of the cursor.
Control-EMove to the end of a line/paragraph.
Control-FMove one character forward.
Control-HDelete the character behind the cursor.
Control-KDelete from the character in front of the cursor to the end of the line/paragraph.
Control-LCenter the cursor/selection in the visible area.
Control-NMove down one line.
Control-OInsert a new line after the cursor.
Control-PMove up one line.
Control-TTranspose the character behind the cursor and the character in front of the cursor.
Control-VPage Down - move down one page.
Option-DeleteDelete the word that is left of the cursor, as well as any spaces or punctuation after the word.
Command-Option-Space barShow the Spotlight search results window.
Command-TabMove forward to the next most recently used application in a list of open applications.
Command-Shift-TabMove backward through a list of open applications (sorted by recent use).
Shift-TabNavigate through controls in a reverse direction.
Control-TabMove focus to the next grouping of controls in a dialog or the next table (when Tab moves to the next cell).
Shift-Control-TabMove focus to the previous grouping of controls.
Control-F1Toggle full keyboard access on or off.
Control-F2Move focus to the menu bar.
Control-F3Move focus to the Dock.
Control-F4Move focus to the active (or next) window.
Shift-Control-F4Move focus to the previously active window.
Control-F5Move focus to the toolbar.
Control-F6Move focus to the first (or next) panel.
Shift-Control-F6Move focus to the previous panel.
Control-F7Temporarily override the current keyboard access mode in windows and dialogs.
Control-F8Move to the status menus in the menu bar.
F9Tile or untile all open windows.
F10Tile or untile all open windows in the currently active application.
F11Hide or show all open windows.
F12Hide or display Dashboard.
Command-Accent (`)Activate the next open window in the frontmost application.
Command-Shift-Accent (`)Activate the previous open window in the frontmost application.
Command-Minus (–)Decrease the size of the selected item.
Command-{Left-align a selection.
Command-}Right-align a selection.
Command-|Center-align a selection.
Command-Colon (:)Display the Spelling window.
Command-Semicolon (;)Find misspelled words in the document.
Command-Comma (,)Open the front application's preferences window (if it supports this keyboard shortcut).
Command-Option-Control-Comma (,)Decrease screen contrast.
Command-Option-Control-Period (.)Increase screen contrast.
Command-Question Mark (?)Open the application's help in Help Viewer.
Command-Option-/Turn font smoothing on or off.
Command-Shift-=Increase the size of the selected item.
Command-Shift-3Capture the screen to a file.
Command-Shift-Control-3Capture the screen to the Clipboard.
Command-Shift-4Capture a selection to a file.
Command-Shift-Control-4Capture a selection to the Clipboard.
Command-AHighlight every item in a document or window, or all characters in a text field.
Command-BBoldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on and off.
Command-CCopy the selected data to the Clipboard.
Command-Shift-CDisplay the Colors window.
Command-Option-CCopy the style of the selected text.
Command-Control-CCopy the formatting settings of the selected item and store on the Clipboard.
Command-Option-DShow or hide the Dock.
Command-Control-DDisplay the definition of the selected word in the Dictionary application.
Command-DSelects the Desktop folder in Open and Save dialogs.
Command-DeleteSelects "Don't Save" in dialogs that contain a Don't Save button, in OS X Lion and Mountain Lion.
Command-EUse the selection for a find.
Command-FOpen a Find window - useful for searching the current window or Web page (in all browsers).
Command-Option-FMove to the search field control.
Command-GFind the next occurrence of the selection.
Command-Shift-GFind the previous occurrence of the selection.
Command-HHide the windows of the currently running application.
Command-Option-HHide the windows of all other running applications.
Command-IItalicize the selected text or toggle italic text on or off.
Command-Option-IDisplay an inspector window.
Command-JScroll to a selection.
Command-MMinimize the active window to the Dock.
Command-Option-MMinimize all windows of the active application to the Dock.
Command-NCreate a new document in the frontmost application.
Command-ODisplay a dialog for choosing a document to open in the frontmost application.
Command-PDisplay the Print dialog.
Command-Shift-PDisplay a dialog for specifying printing parameters (Page Setup).
Command-QQuit the frontmost application.
Command-SSave the active document.
Command-Shift-SDisplay the Save As dialog.
Command-TDisplay the Fonts window.
Command-Option-TShow or hide a toolbar.
Command-UUnderline the selected text or turn underlining on or off.
Command-VPaste the Clipboard contents at the insertion point.
Command-Option-VApply the style of one object to the selected object (Paste Style).
Command-Shift-Option-VApply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (Paste and Match Style).
Command-Control-VApply formatting settings to the selected object (Paste Ruler Command).
Command-WClose the frontmost window.
Command-Shift-WClose a file and its associated windows.
Command-Option-WClose all windows in the application without quitting it.
Command-XRemove the selection and store in the Clipboard.
Command-ZUndo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Undos).
Command-Shift-ZRedo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Redos).
Control-Right ArrowMove focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table.
Control-Left ArrowMove focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table.
Control-Down ArrowMove focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table.
Control-Up ArrowMove focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table.
Command-Right ArrowMove the text insertion point to the end of the current line.
Command-Left ArrowMove the text insertion point to the beginning of the current line.
Command-Down ArrowMove the text insertion point to the end of the document.
Command-Up ArrowMove the text insertion point to the beginning of the document.
Option-Right ArrowMove the text insertion point to the end of the next word.
Option-Left ArrowMove the text insertion point to the beginning of the previous word.
Command-Shift-Right ArrowSelect text between the insertion point and the end of the current line.
Command-Shift-Left ArrowSelect text between the insertion point and the beginning of the current line.
Shift-Right ArrowExtend text selection one character to the right.
Shift-Left ArrowExtend text selection one character to the left.
Command-Shift-Up ArrowSelect text between the insertion point and the beginning of the document.
Command-Shift-Down ArrowSelect text between the insertion point and the end of the document.
Shift-Up ArrowExtend text selection to the line above, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location.
Shift-Down ArrowExtend text selection to the line below, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location.
Shift-Option-Right ArrowExtend text selection to the end of the current word, then to the end of the following word if pressed again.
Shift-Option-Left ArrowExtend text selection to the beginning of the current word, then to the beginning of the following word if pressed again.
Shift-Option-Down ArrowExtend text selection to the end of the current paragraph, then to the end of the following paragraph if pressed again.
Shift-Option-Up ArrowExtend text selection to the beginning of the current paragraph, then to the beginning of the following paragraph if pressed again.
Control-Space barToggle between the current and previous input sources.
Option-Control-Space barToggle through all enabled input sources.
Command-Option-escForce Quit - Great for applications that have become unresponsive and can not be shut down the traditional way.
Command-Shift-Option-Esc (hold for three seconds)Force Quit the front-most application (Mac OS X v10.5 or later).
Command-Left Bracket ([)Go back to the previous browser Web page.
Command-Right Bracket (])Move forward to the next browser Web page.